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The Kingdom of Cambodia is the oldest country in Southeast Asia of the Indochina Peninsula, which has a well-known civilization and culture. It was divided into 13 important Eras as follows:​


1.  Nokor Phnom or Funan Era

(1st Century to 550)

2.  Chenla Era

(550 - 802)

3.  Angkor Era

(802 - 1432)

4.  Chaktomuk Era

(1432 - 1516)

5.  Longvek Era

(1516 - 1593)

6.  Uddong Era

(1620 - 1863)

7.  French Colonial Period

(1863 - 1953)

8.  Popular Socialist Community

(1953 - 1970)

9.  Khmer Republic Regime (Lon Nol)

(1970 - 1975)

10. Democratic Kampuchea Regime (Pol Pot)

(1975 - 1979)

11. People's Republic of Kampuchea

(1979 - 1989)

12. The State of Cambodia Regime

(1989 - 1993)

13. The Kingdom of Cambodia following the constitution

(1993 - Present)


Cambodia has an area of 181,035 square kilometers, which is divided into 23 provinces, 26 towns and 1 capital (Phnom Penh) and it has 9 Khans, 159 districts, 204 Sangkats, 1,417 communes, and 14,073 villages (General Population Census of Cambodia, 2008). The total population is about 14 million with a density of 77 people per square kilometer, and is bordered by Vietnam to the east and the south, Thailand to the west and the north, Laos to the north, and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest. Cambodia is located in the tropical zone with wet and dry climate, so there are two seasons; the rainy and dry season. The dry season starts from November to April, which has temperature between 24°C-33°C; and the rainy season starts from May to October, which has temperature between 18°C-30°C. The coldest month is January and the hottest is April. The annual rainfall is between 100 and 150 centimeters. Cambodia is one of the 10 members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).



Cambodia is divided into 4 main institutions: the Royalty Institution, Legislative Body, Executive Body, and Judicial Institution. It implements the policy of multi-party freedom and democracy with 5-year terms per election. Elections include Non-General and General election. Non-General election is the Commune/Sangkat council election, which is elected by people. Members of the Commune/Sangkat council who win have the right to vote for members of the Senate; and General election is the National Assembly Election, which is elected by people. Members of the National Assembly who win have the right to form the government.


- The Royalty Institution: The king reigns, but he does not govern, and he shall be chosen by nine members of the throne council: they are the president of the Senate, the president of the National Assembly, the Prime Minister, two monks of highest positions (Samdech Sangs of Mohanikay and Thamayuth), both vice-presidents of the Senate and both vice-presidents of the National Assembly. The king, who is crowned, has to be at least 30 years up and descended from the lineage of the king of Ang Doung, Norodom, and Sisowath.

- Legislative Body:
It includes the Senate with 63 seats and the national assembly with 123 seats which are formed by general election and non-general election.

- Executive Body: It is led by the Royal Government of Cambodia, which is elected by national assembly for each term with 50%+1 vote, and the government has to implement according to the constitution which the national assembly has approved. The Royal Government has a Cabinet of the Prime Minister (Peace Building), a council of ministers (Friendship Building), 25 ministries, 11  national authorities, 2 Secretaries of State, which are under its supervision.

- Judicial Institution: It is in charge of the administration of justice, including provincial-municipal ourts or first instance court, court of appeal, Supreme Court; and the supreme council of the Magistracy, which is chaired by the king, who has the right to pardon criminals.


THE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP):​ 7% of 2011 GDP of Cambodia was derived from important sectors as follows:​

- Real Estate and Construction Sector: During these few years, the real estate and construction sector such as land and housing developments and different construction activities are increasing at a surprising rate. There are many grand hotels, high buildings for lease or sale, and there are many companies which have bought the land to develop into a city in which there are many apartments for sale with reasonable prices in a commercial area so that people can afford them. Those cities and provinces are growing rapidly.

- Commercial Sector: The commercial sector includes the export of the clothes to the international markets including the USA, European Union and other agricultural products such as rubbers, rice and cassavas and the import of construction equipment, steel, cement, vehicles and other equipment.

- Industrial Sector: The industrial sector consists of the investment in garment industry with about 300 factories and 400,000 workers and the petroleum discovered in the sea and the hydropower in Kamchay mountain, Kirirom mountain and Stung Tatai.

- Agricultural Sector: It is with 80% of the population being farmers, they grow rice, crops, plantations, and there are concessions and preservation of forests which are habitats of wild animals and the capture of rainfalls. In fisheries, there are fresh water fishing, marine fishing and aquaculture.

- Transportation Sector: It is divided into land routes, waterways, and airways.

Land Routes: There are seven national roads which link Phnom Penh city to other provinces or cities which stretch a total of 38,257 km with two overhead bridges, (Monivong and 7 Makara), Monivong twin bridge, Chroy Chongvar bridge, Prek Phnov bridge, Prek Kdam Bridge, Prek Tamak Bridge, Kisona Bridge, Se Kong bridge (Stung Treng), Neak Loeung bridge, and the bridges that span across the sea (Koh Kong and Sihanoukville).

Waterways: The network of waterways includes Mekong River and Tonle Sap Lake till the sea, and there are Phnom Penh Port, Krong Preah Sihanouk Port and Krong Kampot Port.

Airways: There are Phnom Penh International Airport, Siem Reap International Airport, and Preah Sihanouk Airport.

- Economical and Financial Sector: The Riel is the national currency and there are other foreign currencies in use in the market such as US Dollars, Euros, Thai Baht, and Japanese Yen. (USD 1 ~ 4,000 Riels).

- Educational Sector: There are public and private institutions from primary to higher education institutions with 11,046 public schools, which include 97 higher institutions consisting of 38 public and 59 private institutions, with a total of 3,500,000 students for the academic year 2012-2013.

- Tourism Sector: Cambodia is rich in tourism, cultural, and historical sites such as Angkor Wat Temples, Preah Vihear Temple, which are registered as world heritage sites, and natural resorts such as Kirirom, Bokor Mountain, Kulen Mountain; habitats for wild animals at Tonle Sap, inundated forests, waterfalls, sea beaches such as Kep, Koh Kong (mangroves), Preah Sihanouk Bay which is recognized as a member of the most beautiful bays in the world club. CULTURE AND ARTS include Apsara dancing, Dance of Royal wealth, and grand shadow puppet dancing which are recognized as world cultural abstractive heritage. In addition, there are many carvings on temples and other sculptures which describe ancient legends and deities for different eras.

RELIGION: There are three main religions practiced including Buddhism, which is the state religion with 90% of the population as followers, with 4,392 pagodas. There are a total of 50,000 Buddhist monks. 6% of the populations are Christians and 4% are Muslims.


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